The October online release of Clinical Cancer Research details a study into the development of targeted molecular imaging probes for the non-invasive detection of breast cancer lymph node metastasis. In the work, Tafreshi et al from the Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute identified two markers which were expressed in 100% of the lymph node metastases surveyed. The two markers were cell surface carbonic anhydrase isozymes (CAIX and/or CAXII) and were validated for protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) of patient tissue samples on breast cancer tissue. Targeted probes were then developed by conjugation of CAIX and CAXII specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to a near-infrared fluorescent dye. The authors state that these imaging probes have potential for non-invasive staging of breast cancer in the clinic and elimination of unneeded surgery, which is costly and associated with morbidities.